Energy Dictionary

B
Balancing Electricityr Market
is a market organized by the operator of the electricity transmission system in order to ensure sufficient volumes of electricity and energy required for real-time balancing the volumes of production and import of electricity and the consumption and export of electricity, the settlement of system constraints in the unified energy grid of Ukraine.
Biofuel
is solid, liquid and gaseous fuel made from biologically renewable raw material (biomass), which can be used as fuel or as a component of other fuels.
C
CHPP
cogeneration or combined heat and power. It is a power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Central heating system
provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms. When combined with other systems in order to control the building climate, the whole system may be an HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system.
D
Day-ahead market
is a market, where the customers have a possibility to sell or buy energy for the next 24h day in a closed auction.
Druzhba pipeline
is the world's longest oil pipeline. It was built to transport oil from Russia to the countries of Central and Western Europe. The total length is about 5200 km. The route of the pipeline runs from Almetyevsk through Samara, Bryansk (Russia) to Mozyr (Belarus), where it ramifies into two branches: the northern one (via Belarus, Poland and Germany) and the southern one (through Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary). The Ukrainian segment of the pipeline is operated by Ukrtransnafta.
E
EBRD
the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is an international financial institution. It invests in projects that contribute to the transition to a market economy, as well as the development of business activities.
ETL
electricity transmission line. It is aimed to transmit electricity, is one of the components of the electrical network.
Electric grid
is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, distribution lines that connect individual customers.
Electrical energy
Electrical energy is energy derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy. When used loosely, "electrical energy" refers to energy that has been converted from electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the combination of electric current and electric potential that is delivered by an electrical circuit.
Electrical substation
is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
Energy and Utilities the National Regulatory Commission
is the state collegial body subordinated to the President of Ukraine and accountable to the Parliament of Ukraine. The company regulates, monitors and controls the activities of business entities in the areas of energy and utilities.
F
Feed-in tariff
is a policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies. It is a special tariff at which the state buys electricity produced from renewable energy sources (wind farms, SPPs, mini-hydro, biomass fuels) at set prices.
Fuel and energy complex
is a complex of sectors which provide a contry with electricity. Fuel and energy complex performs production and processing of different fuels and energy resources: coal, oil, nuclear , peat coal, biological etc. The main parts of a complex are electricity, oil, oil-refining, gas and coal sectors.
G
GMS
is a gas metering station. It measures the volumes of gas entering the gas transmission system of Ukraine and passes it to consumers in Europe. Measurement of volumes of gas and its qualitative indicators at the entrance to the GTS of Ukraine is carried out by 12 GMS, and at the output – 11. The last ones make the accounting of gas transported to European countries, including the countries of the Balkan region.
GTS
gas transmission system. It performs two main functions: providing domestic consumers with natural gas, as well as transit of natural gas through the territory of Ukraine to the countries of Western and Central Europe.
Gas refinery plant
is an industrial enterprise, which produces individual hydrocarbons, their mixes, helium, liquefied gases, hydrocarbon black and scrape from associated and natural gases. Oil and gas refineries in Ukraine produce liquefied gas andare subjected to JSC Ukrgazvydobuvannya and PJSC Ukrnafta, which are subdivisions of NJSC Naftogaz of Ukraine.
H
HPP
hydro electric power plant. .A power plant uses the energy of waters in channel streams and tidal movements. Hydro electric power plants are usually built on rivers, building dams and water storages.
I
Individual heating substation
is a complex of automatic devices, usually located in the basement of the building, is designed to connect the house heating systems - heating, hot water or ventilation - to the heat network.
Intraday electricity market
is a market segment in which the purchase and sale of electricity is carried out continuously after the end of the day-ahead market bid and during the day the physical supply of electricity is completed.
M
Main gas pipeline
is a facility aimed to transport natural gas from the place of production to the points of consumption. It is one of the main elements of gas transmission systems. At the end point of the main gas pipeline and the end points of the branches from the main gas pipeline, the gas enters the gas distribution station. Underground gas storage facilities are being constructed near the final point of the main gas pipeline.
Market participant
is a common name of sellers and buyers of the wholesale electricity market.
N
NPP
a nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As it is typical of thermal power stations, heat is used to generate steam that drives a steam turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity.
Naftogaz
is the national oil and gas company of Ukraine and the leading enterprise of Fuel and Energy Complex. It is a national joint stock company subordinated to the Government of Ukraine. The company is involved with extraction, transportation, and refinement of natural gas and crude oil.
Negative imbalance
if the volume of consumed natural gas by the consumer is more than ordered from the supplier.
Nord Stream 2
is a main gas pipeline from Russia to Germany for gas supplies to European consumers, which is under construction. It passes along the bottom of the Baltic sea, its length is more than 1200 km.
Nuclear fuel
is material used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines. Heat is created when nuclear fuel undergoes nuclear fission.
O
Oil pump station
is a complex of structures and equipment that carry out and support the process of oil transmission through main oil pipelines.
Oil refinery plant
is an industrial enterprise, which produce fuel oil, lube oil, dead oil, petroleum coke, paraffine, ceresine, refinery feed-to-chemical plants etc. from unrefined oil. Only Kremenchuk refinery is operational in Ukraine now.
Overhead power line
is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy across large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method of power transmission for large quantities of electric energy.
P
PSH
pumped-storage hydroelectric station is used by electric power systems for load balancing.
Piping
is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid.
Positive imbalance
if the volume of consumed natural gas by the consumer is less than ordered from the supplier.
R
RES
renewable energy sources. Sources of continuously renewable types of energy in the Earth’s biosphere: solar, wind, oceanic, and hydropower of rivers. Renewable energy sources are environmentally friendly, they do not lead to additional heating of the planet.
S
SNRIU
the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine. It participates in ensuring the implementation of state policy in the use of nuclear energy sector. It provides compliance with nuclear and radiation safety requirements.
SPP
solar power plant. Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Small hydro
is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale corresponding to river flow capacity and suitable for local community and industry, or to contribute to distributed generation in a regional electricity grid.
Solar panel
photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Supplier
is an entity that sells electricity under a supply contract to a consumer.
Supplier of the "last hope"
is a company that provides electricity to industrial consumers for a specified period of time for up to 90 days. The supplier company is appointed by the state due to the adoption of the Law on the Electricity Market. This function is performed by SOE Ukrinterenergo now. Enterprises, organizations, institutions whose contracted capacity of electrical installations exceeds 150 kW, were obliged, by December 11, 2018, to choose a supplier of electricity and to conclude a contract with it on market conditions. Companies that did not found a supplier at the new market will automatically become customers of the supplier of the "last hope".
T
TPP
thermal power plant is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
The State Regulatory Service
is the national executive authority which is responsible for ensuring an effective dialogue between the Government and business community. It mplements the regulatory policy, policy on licensing and permit system, as well as controls an economic activity; coordinates the state authorities with regard to deregulation of economic activities.
Turkish Stream
a natural gas pipeline running from the Russian Federation to Turkey. It runs from Russkaya compressor station near Anapa in Krasnodar Region across the Black Sea to Kıyıköy on the Turkish Thrace coast. It is replacing the cancelled South Stream project.Following the shootdown of a Russian fighter jet by Turkey in November 2015, the project was temporarily halted. However, Russia–Turkey relations were restored in summer 2016 and the intergovernmental agreement for TurkStream was signed in October 2016. Construction started in May 2017 and was completed in November 2018.
U
UGS
underground gas storage. Itis a complex of engineering structures intended for the gas injection, storage and subsequent pumping out. UGS facilities are constructed near the route of gas pipelines and large gas-consuming centers so that they can quickly cover a peak gas consumption.
United energy system of Ukraine
is the combination of power plants, electrical and thermal networks, other electric power facilities, united by a common mode of production, transmission and distribution of electrical and thermal energy for their centralized management.
Universal service providers
universal service providers. Secure electricity supply. Households and small businesses have the right for it.
W
WEM
wholesale electricity market is where electricity is traded (bought and sold) before being delivered to end consumers (individuals, households or businesses) via the grid.
Wholesale market price
is an average electricity price during the day, an actual price fluctuates every hour.
Wind farm
or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity. It may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines.